The medical term for Dry Eye is KCS (Kerato-Conjunctivitis Sicca), also referred to as OSD (Ocular Surface Disease) or MGD (Meibomian Gland Dysfunction).

The above terms refer to associated conditions resulting in various frustrating ocular symptoms in which inadequate tears remain on the eye surface, more commonly as we age. This results in friction & thus irritation of the ocular surface by the continuous rubbing of the upper lid, which in turn causes the surface epithelial cells to become damaged.  Note the pic to the left demonstrates corneal scratches (bright green vertical details).  Like a scratched window, this often progresses to more permanent vision loss as the corneal tissue may scar.  There are 3 layers of to the Tear Film:

Mucous Layer - Produced by the Goblet Cells - Binds the Tears to the Corneal surface

Aqueous Layer - Produced by the Lacrimal Gland - Water-like layer that we normally relate to as tears

Lipid Layer - Produced by the Meibomian Glands - Oily layer that prevents Evaporation of the aqueous layer

Also effective for gradual Chalazion reduction ....Scroll down to learn more about our Dry Eye Treatment

Diagnostic Tests

INFLAMMADRY Test - detects the MMP-9 Inflammatory Proteins

TEAR OSMOLARITY - identifies the various levels of hyper/hypo tonicity of the tears

SCHIRMER/ZONE QUICK - measures the quantity of the Aqueous layer

BIOMICROSCOPY - Provides high Resolution Magnification of the Corneal/Ocular Adnexia

  • Note the pic to the right - the dark irregular shaped area represents inadequate tear film

Treatment Procedure

MEIBOMIAN GLAND EXPRESSION involves an extensive process of heating, massaging & compressing the upper & lower lids to physically remove the congested/thickened tears known as Meibum.  This allows the glands to open up making room for excretion of oils to perform their function. 

Follow up Care & Maintenance

Depending on how long the Meibomian Glands have been congested, after-care regimen is prescribed in order to re-train the glands to resume production of the tear oils.  This generally includes a heat-mask, lid-care, vitaminA & various eye drops/sprays.  In severe cases, some or all of the meibomian glands may have become permanently damaged & oil/tear production may not resume & one may have to rely solely on the Lacrimal Gland's aqueous tears.


This is a technique that enforces the opening of the drainage canal commonly needed if blocked - resulting in tears spilling over as though one is crying. 


A probe is used with a syringe to squirt fluid into the nasal-lacrimal duct to push out any obstruction & cause it to open up.  Local Anaesthetic is administered prior to the procedure to minimize discomfort.